Thursday, 17 May 2007

The Aryo-Germanic Legal System

According to Guido von List in his Die Rita der Ario-Germanen the prechristian Germanic peoples held their courts or Things outdoors under the open sky in places that were considered sacred to our ancestors such as sacred stones[heilige Steine], sacred trees[heilige Baueme] etc and only during the hours of daylight.

"Mit Sonnenaufgang wurde das Gericht eroeffnet mit Sonnenuntergang geschlossen, denn, `nur bei steigender und scheinender Sonne durfte getagt werden` und der Richter eroeffnete den Stabgang mit den Worten `uppen Tag`, d.h. `die Tagung ist eroeffnet.` `Sonnenzeit` galt darum fuer alle gerichtlichen Handlungen, sowohl fuer die eigentliche Gerichtspflege wie fuer das Warten der Vorgeforderten als auch fuer gerichtliche Ladungen; ja es wurde selbst darauf Ruecksicht genommen, dass Richter, Schoeffen und die sonstig Beteiligten noch vor Sonnenuntergang heimkehren konnten.
Vor Sonnenuntergang musste auch das Gottesurteil, der gerichtliche Zweikampf oder die Strafe vollzogen oder auf einen anderen Tag verschoben werden, wenn die Sonne schon zum Untergange neigte, da besonders bei Ordalien ein Sieg zur Nachtzeit als durch den Beistand der Dunkelmaechte erzielt angesehen worden waere." [Page 79]

My translation:

"The court was opened at sunrise and closed at sunset, because only with the rising and shining sun may the court sit and the judge opens the process with the words `uppen Tag`, because of that `the session is opened`. The suntime was the right time therefore for all legal dealings, both for the maintenance of the court and for waiting for the accused and for judicial charges; indeed it was taken into consideration that judges, jurors and the others taking part could still return home before sunset.
The trial by ordeal, the judicial duel or the punishment had to be completed by sunset or moved to another day, if the sun was already setting, because a victory at nighttime would have been credited to the assistance of dark powers."

Furthermore the whole legal process was viewed as a kind of combat.

" `Jeder Prozess`-sagt Grimm-`ist ein Kampf. Der Klaeger greift an, der Verklagte wehrt sich. Die Vorladung ist eine Kriegsankuendigung. Die Gemeinde schaut zu und urteilt, wer unterlegen sei. Zeugen und Mitschwoerende helfen auf beiden Seiten. Zuweilen loest sich das ganze Verfahren in das Gottesurteil eines leiblichen Zweikampfes auf` " [pages 79-80].

My translation:

" `Every process`-says Grimm-`is a battle. The plaintiff attacks, the defendant defends himself. The summons is a declaration of war. The community observes and judges who is to be defeated. Witnesses and others under oath help on both sides. Occasionally the entire proceedings dissolves into a trial by ordeal of a physical duel."

In prechristian Germanic times our ancestors held a Thing three times a year in accordance with the threefold division of time, castes and hierarchical structures.The number three was clearly sacred to our ancestors. Since the forced christianisation of our ancestors the Things were held four times a year.
The Thing would have taken place on a Tuesday in honour of the Germanic god of justice, Tyr or Tiu. Hence the German name for Tuesday, Dienstag from Dingstag-literally Thingday.
This association with Tyr/Tiw or the Thing is echoed throughout the Germanic languages:

Old English-Tiwesdaeg

Guido von List goes into great detail about the significance of the staff wielded by the judge and how this symbolic item surived and transmuted into the baton held by Field Marshalls and how the word itself carried over into expressions such as general staff[Generalstab].
It should be pointed out that the Marshall was a very important figure in post-Armanen times and it is believed that he represented a survival of the office of the head of the Armanenschaft.

"Der Vorsteher der Armanenschaft eines Landes oder Gaues-der spaetere Marschall, den Tacitus als Priester bezeichnet-uebte in Namen des Koenigs die hoechste richterliche Gewalt aus, sogar in Heere. So berichtet Tacitus[Germania, cap . 7]: `Zum Koenig bestimmt der Geburtsadel, zum Heerfuehrer die Tapferkeit. Aber die koenigliche Gewalt ist unumschraenkte und auch der Heerfuehrer ist mehr Vorbild als Befehlshaber."[pages 64-65]

My translation:

The head of the Armaneschaft of a country or district-the later Marshall, who Tacitus described as a priest exercised in the name of the king the highest judicial power, even in the armies. So reports Tacitus[Germania chapter 7]: the king is determined by noble birth, the army commander by bravery. However the royal power is unlimited and also the army commander is more of an example than a commander."

"Das richterliche Abzeichen war der Stab, welcher mit dem Koenigsstab, dem Szepter und dem Bischofsstab, dem Krummstab, eines Ursprunges ist."[page 68]

My translation:

"The judicial insignia was the staff, which with the royal staff, the sceptre and the bishop`s staff, the crozier is of one origin."

In prechristian times the Armanenschaft embodied three concepts into one body, the royal, the judicial and the spiritual. The coming of christianity caused these three functions to be removed from the Armanenschaft which in itself was suppressed and the three functions were seperated but many of their traditions and customs can be traced back to the Armanen.
The staff wielded by the king, the bishop and the judge is a survival of this tradition in visible form.

Another visible symbol of judicial authority was the throne.

"Wie der Koenig auf dem Throne, so sass der Richter auf dem `Stuhl`[ahd. stuol, goth.stool,langobard.stolesazo[Stuhlsasse,Richter],stuol: sat-ul=Sitz des Geistes oder der Weisheit],....."[page 72]

My translation:

"As the king on the throne, so sat the judge on the throne.................Seat of the spirit or of wisdom,"